The Libyan oil ministry told CNN on Wednesday that production had shrunk to a near halt in June, to 100,000 barrels per day (bpd) from 1.2 million bpd last year. But on Monday, oil minister Mohamed Oun told CNN that production had climbed up to 800,000 barrels a day, saying some fields had come back online.
The US ambassador to Libya, Richard Norland, told CNN on Thursday that due to the country’s political tensions “there are certain parties who seek to gain an advantage by misrepresenting oil production figures.” The earlier figures provided by the oil ministry were “inaccurate,” he said, adding that “actual production is significantly higher.”
Here’s what you need to know about Libya’s oil:
Why does Libya’s oil matter?
Its proximity to Europe means that it can easily transport oil by sea through much shorter routes than other producers, and most of its oil is exported to European nations, he said.
What is the biggest hurdle facing Libya’s oil production?
The UN-backed Government of National Unity (GNU) sits in the capital, Tripoli, and is headed by interim prime minister Abdulhamid Dbeibeh. In the east is a rival, parliament-elected government that is led by Fathi Bashaga.
Most of Libya’s oil fields and infrastructure are in the east of the country, where commander Khalifa Haftar and his Libyan National Army (LNA) have armed control. He is allied with the Bashaga government.
Who is in charge of oil production?
On paper, the Tripoli-based National Oil Corporation (NOC) is the entity tasked with controlling the production and marketing of the country’s oil abroad.
Warring parties in the east and the west have tried to seize control of the NOC since 2014, but the sector is overseen by oil minister Mohammed Oun, who belongs to the UN-backed government in the west.
But his influence is weak, says Libya analyst Jalel Harchaoui, and he is caught in a power struggle with the NOC, which “has been going to great lengths” to maximize output.
CNN was unable to reach the NOC for comment.
On the ground, however, eastern-based commander Khalifa Haftar is largely in charge, Harchaoui says. Armed brigades under his command have disrupted production several times.
What is the role of foreign parties?
Oil Minister Oun blamed foreign powers with competing interests for Libya’s political crisis. “There needs to be an agreement between them on the best ways towards a mechanism that removes Libya from this crisis,” he told CNN.
Haftar has been backed by Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, and Russia.
In 2020, at the height of their involvement, Wagner seized control of Libya’s Sharara oil field, one of its biggest. The seizure also helped Haftar maintain a blockade of petroleum exports. The presence of Russian personnel gives Moscow the ability to disrupt Libya’s oil supplies if it so wishes, Harchaoui said.
Norland, the US ambassador, said a drop in Libyan production “certainly serves Russian interests and Moscow, no doubt, supports it,” but he attributed the current disruptions to “domestic Libyan factors.”
Is oil prompting the West to make a comeback in Libya?
Approval of the mechanism at the political level will still have to follow, but Libyan parties have agreed in principle on “certain areas of priority expenditure,” said Norland, who resides in Tunisia.
Asked if the US has confidence in the UN-backed government to bring back stable output, Norland said that “no single political entity exercises sovereign control over all of Libya’s territory and that includes the oil fields.”
White House says Biden’s meeting with Saudi officials will ‘include’ crown prince
The White House said Sunday that President Joe Biden’s upcoming meeting with Saudi officials will “include” the kingdom’s crown prince, Mohammed bin Salman, hours after Energy Secretary Jennifer Granholm suggested there would be a one-on-one meeting.
- Background: Granholm told CNN on Sunday that it was her “understanding” that Biden would meet one-on-one with the crown prince next month during his planned trip to Saudi Arabia. On Friday, Biden said he won’t meet with MBS, but that the crown prince would be part of an international meeting.
- Why it matters: With Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, a global spike in energy prices and an increasing nuclear threat from Iran, the US has been trying to build back its relations with Saudi Arabia and the Gulf countries. Biden’s upcoming trip to Saudi Arabia complicates the president’s pledge to make the country a “pariah” for its role in the killing of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
Iran says ‘too early’ to talk of Tehran, Riyadh reopening embassies
It would be premature to speak of Iran and Saudi Arabia reopening embassies in each other’s capitals, Iran’s foreign ministry spokesperson said on Monday, after five rounds of talks since last year between rivals on improving ties.
- Background: Riyadh severed ties with Tehran in 2016 after Iranian protesters stormed the Saudi embassy in the Iranian capital following the execution of a Shiite cleric in Saudi Arabia. In April, the two held the fifth round of their negotiations in Iraq, and the first batch of 39,635 Iranian Hajj pilgrims authorized to perform their religious duty in Mecca arrived in Saudi Arabia this month.
- Why it matters: Warming ties between the two could significantly de-escalate regional tensions. In a phone call with his United Arab Emirates counterpart on Saturday, Iranian Foreign Minister Hossein Amir-Abdollahian “pointed to the priority of neighbors in Iran’s foreign policy and called for more consultation … to expand bilateral ties.”
Bahrain to start accepting Russia’s “Mir” payment card
Bahrain’s ambassador to Russia Ahmed Al Saati said his country will soon accept the “Mir” payment card, according to the Russian news outlet RT. The ambassador said the move will allow Russian tourists to spend on holiday in Bahrain.
- Background: Russia created its own card payment system in 2014 because it feared US and European sanctions against some Russian banks and businesspeople over the annexation of Crimea could block transactions made with US-based Mastercard and Visa. There have been a total of 116 million cards issued.
- Why it matters: The recent expulsions of major Russian banks from the SWIFT messaging system means that customers struggle to conduct their business outside of Russia. The acceptance of “Peace” will work to ease that blow. Countries that currently accept “Peace” are: Turkey, Vietnam, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
Around the region
The controversial practice of celebratory gunfire in the Middle East has come back to the limelight after a child in Egypt was killed by a stray bullet from a former politician’s gun.
The new ruling gives authorities the power to reject, revoke, suspend, or shorten gun licenses as it sees fit.
Jordan’s al Mamlaka TV estimates that between 2013 and 2018, there were up to 1,869 casualties in the country from celebratory gunfire.
By Mohammed Abdelbary